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Suggested protocols and case studies.

  1. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Reported Lyme disease cases by state, 2005-2015. www.cdc.gov.

  2. Levy SA. Use of a C6 ELISA test to evaluate the efficacy of a whole-cell bacterin for the prevention of naturally transmitted canine Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Vet Ther. 2002;3(4):420–424.

  3. Levy, S. A., B. A. Lissman, and C. M. Ficke. "Performance of a Borrelia burgdorferi bacterin in borreliosis-endemic areas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202.11 (1993): 1834-1838.

  4. Elanco Animal Health, Data on file.

  5. CDC, Tickborne Diseases of the United States, A Reference Manual for Health Care Providers, Fourth Edition, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/resources/tickbornediseases.pdf

  6. Greene, CE et al. Borreliosis. In. Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2012.

  7. Levy, Steven A., Kathy K. Clark, and Larry T. Glickman. "Infection rates in dogs vaccinated and not vaccinated with an OspA Borrelia burgdorferi vaccine in a Lyme disease-endemic area of Connecticut." Intl J of Appl Res 3 (2005): 1-5.
  8. "TickEncounter Resource Center.” TickEncounter Resource Center > Tick Identification > Ixodes scapularis (Blacklegged tick or Deer tick), University of Rhode Island, www.tickencounter.org/tick_identification/deer_tick. Accessed 16 Sept 2017.
  9. Companion Animal Parasite Council. Parasite Prevalence Maps, 2017. Accessed on September 16, 2017 at https://www.capcvet.org/maps#2017/all/lyme-disease/dog/united-states/


Learn the facts about how to assess risk by geography and exposure to deer ticks.


Lyme Disease is largely preventable through tick control and vaccination. Get important details.


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